Hardness of Water, Types, Advantages And Disadvantages

In this post, you will read and understand the meaning of hardness of water, types, advantages and disadvantages.

Meaning of Hardness of Water

Hardness of Water: Hard water are water which does not form a lather readily  with soap, and this properties are called hardiness of water.

Hardness of water is due to the presence of dissolved calcium tetra oxo sulphate six, and hydrogen trioxocarbonate four in water.


There are (2) types of hardness of water:

  1. Permanent Hardiness and
  2. Temporary Hardiness

1. Permanent Hardiness: Is a hardiness which can not be remove by boiling, It is due to the presence of tetra oxo sulphate six or chloride of Calcium, magnesium, or ion.

2. Temporary Hardiness: this is caused by the presence of hydrogen trioxo carbonate four(HCO3). Temporary hard water is formed when rain water that contain dissolve carbon four oxide flows through a locality where there are deposit of lime stone or chalk, it dissolve lime stone or chalk to form solution of carbonate four salt.


Despite its negative effects, hard water can have some benefits:

  1. Calcium salts in hard water can be used in the manufacturing of food products.
  2. The taste of hard water is considered desirable in certain industries, such as beer brewing.
  3. Hard water is useful in the production of cement.


On the other hand, there are several disadvantages associated with hard water:

  1. Hard water wastes soap and detergent because more is needed to produce lather.
  2. When hard water is boiled, insoluble calcium carbonate (CaCO3) can deposit in kettles and boilers, causing damage and reducing efficiency.
  3. Hard water is unsuitable for use in many industries, such as laundry, textile, dying, and paper manufacturing, due to its negative effects on materials.

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