Past WAEC GCE Government Questions and Answers

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WAEC GCE Government Questions and Answers

Below are the questions of the 2023 waec gce questions and answers

WAEC GCE Government Questions


WAEC GCE Government Questions 2

WAEC GCE Government Answers

Question (2)

(i) Participation:
Participation in the concept of good governance here is an opportunity for everyone to voice their opinions through institutions or representations. In addition, everyone, without exception, has the right to freedom of association and expression.

(ii) Rule of law:
To implement good governance, the legal framework in the country must be enforced impartially, especially concerning human rights law.

(iii) Transparency:
Transparency means that every policy taken and implemented by the government must be carried out under existing regulations. In addition, there must be a guarantee that any information related to the policy can be accessed by everyone, especially those who are directly affected by the policy.

(iv) Responsiveness:
Good governance needs institutions and processes to attempt to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable time.

(v) Consensus: oriented
This fifth principle is related to the decision-making process. When the decision-making process cannot accommodate everyone’s wishes, then at a minimum, the decision must be a decision that can be accepted by everyone and does not harm anyone.

(vi) Equity and inclusiveness:
Good governance ensures justice for the community. Everyone has the same opportunity to maintain and improve their welfare.

Question (3)

(i) Influencing political parties: Advocacy groups can cultivate links with political parties to influence policy decisions. This is better done when the party is a party of opposition, as a party in government it will be hindered by time constraints, and policy formation is likely to be top-down. However, when a party is in opposition, it will be more accepting towards a variety of ideas to broaden its support and formulate new policies.

(ii) Letter-writing, Petitions and Marches: Traditionally, the campaigns of pressure groups have included things such as letter-writing, petitions and marches. Petition-signing and letter-writing have been used to good effect at pride marches. These have been influential in the repeal of sodomy laws, support for civil unions and on supporting anti-discrimination legislation.

(iii) Influencing Political Parties: In most liberal democracies, advocacy groups tend to use the bureaucracy as the main channel of influence because, in liberal democracies, this is where the decision-making power lies. The aim of advocacy groups here is to attempt to influence a member of the legislature to support their cause by voting a certain way in the legislature.

(iv) Embarking on Legal Action: The judicial branch of government can also be used by advocacy groups to exert influence, especially in states that have codified constitutions.

(v) Direct Action Campaigns: The use of direct action is increasingly popular among pressure groups. The premise of direct group action stems from the concept that traditional methods of influencing government policy are flawed and that more direct protests, acts of civil disobedience and in more extreme cases illegal acts and violence may offer the best opportunity for group success, as they captivate media attention.


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Question (5)


(i) Geopolitical Information: The study of government gets people informed on international politics and regional or geographical effects in consideration for decision-making, especially those decisions pertaining to the state. Geopolitics involves international relations as influenced by geopolitical factors. It is the study and understanding of the effects of certain factors such as; demography, economics and geography in relation to politics.

(ii) Political Participation: The study of government unarguably stirs up people’s interest in politics. People who got admitted into the political science department, not being their choice of course are shown to develop an interest in the short run. The study of political science or any government-related course such as government education is, of course, such an interesting course of study.

(iii) To Understand the Socio: Political and Economic Structures and Factors in the State: Leadership and governance demand that the sociological factors that operate in a given territory be put into smooth consideration while decision-making. The study of government gets the intending leader or leaders informed as to such sociological factors and their possible effects on governance. Such factors may include; environmental circumstances, religion, culture, etc.

(iv) Knowledge of the Citizen’s Rights, Obligations and Remedies: The study of government is basically about the structure of the state and governance, the responsibilities of the government towards the citizens, and the citizens’ rights and obligations in the state, including remedies which they could employ upon the breach of their rights and non-performance of the government’s obligation.

(v) Knowledge of History: In the study of politics, history is indispensable. Government and history cannot be studied in isolation. The mastery of the past renders the future predictable, and it has been said to help avoid certain mistakes of the past. Understanding the mistakes of past leaders aids to curb the future occurrence of a similar failure.

(vi) Opportunities: The study of government unarguably creates opportunities for job employment. Government is a social science-related course, and the acquisition of the degree makes one employable in administrative positions in any field, political appointments, ambassadorship, education sector, etc. People may choose to study government for this reason.

(vii) Personal Development: People may choose to study government for the reason of personal development. The knowledge of government is considered social intelligence. People who desire to improve their social intellect may opt for studying government for this reason.


Question (7)

Nationalism has to do with the strong emotional awareness individuals possess of belonging to a nation/state which results in the struggle against colonialism and domination.

(i) Discrimination:
The European officials discriminated against Nigerians, for example, in the civil services.

(ii) The Impact of the second world war:
The myth claimed to have surrounded white supremacy was exposed and broken. The ex-service men that fought the war alongside the white-men made this revealing exposure.

(iii)The Atlantic Charters:
This charter was signed by the British Prime Minister and the President of U.S.A. The Charter gave the people of the world irrespective of race, colour, etc, the right to self-determination.

(iv) British Labour Party:
The party was not supportive of the policies of the conservative party towards colonization.

(v) Individuals and Organisations:
Some organisations and individuals played crucial roles towards the growth of nationalism, for example, Creoles/ freed slaves, some Americans, etc.

Question (10)

The military rule by decrees which often are not in support with the interest of the people. Nobody can question these decrees. They are to be obeyed.

(ii) Dictatorship:
A military government is a strict government governed through a dictatorship. There is no majority view in this government or the views of the masses

(iii) Corruption:
There is a high level of corruption in a military government. Leaders are not accountable to anybody.

(iv) Absence of rule of law:
Since the military is in charge there is no rule of law because the constitution is suspended under military rule.

(v) Violation of human rights:
Rights of citizens are abused and nobody can seek redress anywhere. The death of Ken Saro Wiwa, a human rights activist is a good example.

(vi) Sanctions from the international community:
Nigeria received several sanctions during the military rule which was not healthy for the economy of Nigeria.

(vii) The Nigerian civil war:
This took place during the military rule in Nigeria. So many lives and properties were lost. The civil war took place between 1967 and 1970.

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