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WAEC GCE Civic Education Past Questions and Answers
(i) Physical or psychological abuse
(ii) Abuse of fundamental human rights
(iii) Delay in education and human capacity development of the child
(iv) Human trafficking can lead to unwanted pregnancy
(v) It leads to stigmatization
(i) To implement international commitments: ensure that international agreements are turned into national laws and practices by assisting other countries in need and improving the monitoring of compliance.
(ii) To strengthen prevention: warn vulnerable groups and alleviate the factors that make people vulnerable to traffickings, such as poverty, underdevelopment and lack of opportunity.
(iii) To improve law enforcement: to strengthen information exchange between law enforcement agencies on international trafficking routes and traffickers´ profiles to dismantle criminal groups, leading to the conviction of traffickers.
(iv) To strengthen partnerships: build up regional and thematic networks involving civil society, inter-governmental organizations and the private sector.
(v) To support and protect victims: ensure housing, counselling, medical, psychological and material assistance, keeping in mind the special needs of women and children and people at risk, such as those in refugee camps and conflict zones.
(i) Discrimination: This can take many forms, such as racial, gender, sexual orientation, or religious discrimination, and it can limit the ability of individuals and groups to exercise their rights and participate fully in society.
(ii) Lack of access to resources: The unequal distribution of resources, such as education, healthcare, and economic opportunities, can prevent individuals and groups from realizing their rights and reaching their full potential.
(iii) Corruption: Corruption can undermine the rule of law, undermine public trust in government and institutions, and limit the ability of individuals and groups to access justice and have their rights respected.
(iv) Inadequate legal frameworks: Weak or outdated legal frameworks can fail to protect the rights of individuals and groups, especially marginalized communities, leaving them vulnerable to abuse and exploitation.
(v) Political instability: Political instability can create an environment where the rule of law is not respected and the rights of individuals and groups are not protected. In extreme cases, political instability can lead to conflict, human rights abuses, and the breakdown of the social order.
Traffic regulation can be defined as the rules and regulations which guide the behavior or action of road users. This is in place in order to prevent accidents and enhance the free flow of traffic.
(i) Poor public transport systems
(ii) Rising number of personnel vehicles
(iii) Obstacles in the road causing a blockage and merger
(iv) Bad vehicle/motor maintenance culture in Nigeria
(v) Too many trucks on the road due to inadequate rail freight opportunities
(vi) Overdevelopment in areas where the mass transit system is already overcrowded and the road system is inadequate.
[PICK FIVE ONLY]
(i) It breeds children with good leadership/citizenship qualities.
(ii) It nurtures children to know and perform their duties and obligations in the society
(iii) It trains children to abhor criminal acts/reduce crime in the society.
(iv) It trains children to know their rights and how to secure them.
(v) It trains children to be patriotic/nationalistic.
(vi) It trains children to be peace loving.
(vii) It trains children to uphold law and order/rule of law.
(viii) It trains children to abhor social vices/problems.
(ix) It trains children to be politically active.
(i) Equality before the law: this principle implies that everybody both the rulers and ruled, the governed and the governor regardless of their status or positions, are all equal before the law of the land and such should be given equal treatment by the law so that nobody would be above the law.
(ii) The principle of impartiality: this advocates for due process of the law in Wich partiality should not be exercised in dealing with offenders. It ensures the regular and adequate application of the law whereby nobody should be subjected to punishment or penalty for any offence unless found guilty of breaking the law Which must be established by a recognized law of court in the country.
(iii) Right to personal liberty: This principle stipulates that all citizens of a country should be entitled to certain rights or freedoms as stated in the constitution.
[PICK THREE ONLY]
(i) The rule of law ensures adequate protection of individual fundamental human rights in the country
(ii) It will also promote the supremacy of the constitution where maximum regard or respect will be accorded to the laws of the land
(iii) It ensures full separation of powers and the application of checks and balances which will prevent the emergence of dictatorship in the state
(iv) It ensures full protection of the citizens from arbitrary rules of government in a country
(v) Rule of law ensures freedom of the press and mass media for adequate dissemination of information to the knowledge of the public about government policies and actions.
(i) Lack of Security: some voters are away from the polls as they are not sure of adequate security.
(ii) Political Violence: party thugs ward off people to perpetuate all sorts of rigging. Lately, political campaigns are characterized by violence and the killing of innocent people. All these have made people indifferent to politics
(iii) Lack of Commitment To Political Policies: people are discouraged from participating in subsequent political activities as politicians make a lot of good promises during campaigns and do not fulfil them they even embezzle funds meant for making life better for the electorates.
(iv) Bad Governance: governance is characterized by bad policies, corruption, injustice and infringement of people’s rights, mismanagement of funds etc. these will ever discourage people to participate in politics
(v) Lack of Transparency: Electoral malpractices in past elections which have made the expected candidate lose out make a lot of people presume their vote will not count, therefore they decided to be apathetic.
(i) Voter education: The NOA should embark on voter education and sensitization in rural areas to ensure that people are aware of their right to vote and be voted for.
(ii) Holding government accountable: the NOA should ensure and lobby other government agencies in the fight against political thuggery and corruption. And make sure the government is held accountable for its promises
(iii) Correction of political ills in society: the NOA should ensure the proper correction of electoral malpractices and violence in society.
(iv) Protection of voters: the agency should also align with the security agencies to ensure the protection of citizen’s life during and after elections.
(v) Observing elections: The NOA should become an observatory agency during elections to help and monitor the proper handling of resources and manpower during the election, this way people would be able to regain confidence in the electoral processes.
(i) Genetic differences: Some individuals have some variations in their DNA that result in enzymes that don’t work as well. Variations affecting the enzyme’s active site that binds to drugs, however, can cripple its ability to break down a drug.
(ii) Drug interactions: Some drugs block the active site of the liver enzyme so it can’t be reused, preventing other drugs from binding to it and getting metabolized. As drug concentrations rise, so does the risk of side effects.
(iii) Inflammation: Immune systems of some people may also attack unaffected areas and result in chronic inflammation that can damage tissues and joints, or even increase the risk of heart disease. Some livers cannot make as many drug-metabolizing enzymes, which results in a decline in drug breakdown.
[PICK THREE ONLY]
(i) Parental Intervention: Parents can begin to serve as good role models and mentors for their children to emulate. Parental education of children about the dangers of drug abuse will go a long way to reduce the rate of drug abuse in society.
(ii) Public Enlightenment Campaign and Seminars: There should be regular campaign programmes and seminars where the public can be educated on the dangers of drug abuse to the individual, family and society at large.
(iii) Religious Intervention: Our religious bodies should sensitize their followers to the negative effects of drug abuse. The campaign should be emphasized in their various gatherings until there is a positive response.
(iv) Media Campaign: The existing media in the country should promote programmes that would prevent the youths from going into the illegal use of drugs. If the print and electronic media can engage in this kind of campaign it will help to reduce drug abuse in society.
(v) Sales should be done by professionals: The sales and management of drugs should be done by qualified professionals such as pharmacists and doctors. People without expertise should not be allowed to transact drugs.
(vi) Adequate Punishment for Offenders: There should be strict laws and adequate punishment for those who deal drugs illegally.
(vii) School Intervention: Drug abuse, its negative effects and consequences should be made part of our school curriculum. Students should be taught how to live responsibly in society without depending on drugs.
(viii) Provision of Employment: Some people are involved in the abuse of drugs as a result of poverty and joblessness. When such people are engaged in productive ventures it will reduce their dependence on drugs.
(ix) Effective Drug Law Enforcement Agencies: The existing agencies in charge of drug law enforcement in Nigeria should be well equipped to enable them to carry out their responsibilities effectively.
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