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WAEC Islamic Studies Essay and Objective Answer 2023
Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
(i)Qul huwal laahu ahad
(iii)Lam yalid wa lam yoolad
(iv)Wa lam yakul-lahoo kufuwan ahad
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful.
(i)Say, “He is God, the One.
(ii)God, the Absolute.
(iii)He begets not, nor was He begotten.
(iv)And there is nothing comparable to Him.”
Surah Al-Ikhlas proclaims the Oneness of Allah and this concept is presented in the first ayah. The second ayah declares that Allah is As-Samad implying that He has all the attributes of perfection. As-Samad is one of the Names of Allah. It means the one Who everybody depends on, but the one who doesn’t depend on anyone, it also indicates that Allah is unlike His creation. The third ayah describes that He was not born nor did He give birth and the last ayah declares that Allah is beyond comparison. Surah Al-Ikhlas directly supports the first pillar of Islam, the shahadah.
Surah al-Ikhlas is one of the first surahs that many Muslims remember learning as a child and this is also true for those who convert to Islam. After a person has learnt the basics of the five daily prayers they are usually anxious to recite the shorter surahs of the Quran in their prayers, and almost always surah Al-Ikhlas is one of them.
Reciting surah Al-Ikhlas may be the means of attaining Paradise and earning Allah’s love. From the ahadith we are able to find some of the many benefits of loving, reciting and living by the principles outlined in this short surah.
Prophet Muhammad sent a man as a leader of an expedition. During the journey, in every prayer he concluded his recitation of the Quran with surah Al-Ikhlas. On their return his companions mentioned this to Prophet Muhammad, who replied, “Ask him why he did so”. When the man was asked, he answered, “In this surah the attributes of the Merciful Allah have been stated; therefore, I love to recite it again and again.” When the Prophet Muhammad heard this reply, he said to the people, “Inform him that Allah holds him in great love and esteem.
(i) Abu Bakr was the first Caliph to succeed Prophet Mohammed.
(ii) Helped in the collection of various fragmented verses to make the Quran into a single book.
(iii) Helped to build the mosque of Medina and paid for the land on which it was built
(iv) Helped the prophet Mohammed to fight many jihads (Holy war)
(v) He formed a well-trained army to fight many jihads
(vi) He was a great warrior.
(vii) Taught Muslims the Hajj rites and rituals, e.t.c
(i) His monumental work inspired generations of scholars of hadith including Imam Muslim who produced authentic book of hadith called Sahih Muslim considered the second best only to Sahih Bukhari in authenticity.
(ii) His book has helped Muslims live their lives as close to the life of the Prophet (S.A.W) as possible.
(iii) He divided his book into different topics each with numerous chapters within it for easy references e.g. “the superiority of extra prayers at night in Ramadhan i.e Taraweh.
(iv) He organized his collection in a way that it can also be used to help deduce rulings within Islamic law.
(iv) He made the study of hadith a science with governing laws that protected the field from innovations and corruptions.
(v) Imam Bukhari analysed each hadith as either sahih, hasan, Mutawatir , ahad, dhaif or maudhu a system that became the standard by which all hadith were classified by other hadith scholars.
(vi) Imam Bukhari studied the lives of narrators to make sure they were trustworthy and would not fabricate or change the wording of a hadith.
(vii) His authentic book of hadith (sahih Bukhari) is the most depended book of hadith immediately after the Holy Qur’an.
(viii) He dedicated his life in compiling a book that would strictly comprise of authentic traditions.
The consequences of Uthman dan Fodio’s jihad were significant and had lasting impacts on the region. One of the major consequences of Uthman dan Fodio’s jihad was the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate, which became one of the largest and most influential Islamic states in West Africa. The Sokoto Caliphate encompassed a vast territory and brought together various Hausa states under a centralized Islamic administration.
Uthman dan Fodio’s jihad aimed to promote and spread Islam throughout the region. As a result, the Hausaland experienced a significant Islamization process. Mosques and Islamic schools were established, and Islamic practices and teachings were emphasized. The spread of Islam brought about changes in religious practices, social structures, and cultural norms.
Uthman dan Fodio’s jihad led to a significant socio-political transformation in Hausaland. The establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate brought about a centralized political authority, with Uthman dan Fodio as the spiritual and political leader. The caliphate introduced Islamic governance principles, such as the implementation of Sharia law and the appointment of local administrators to enforce Islamic teachings and regulations.
The jihad resulted in the consolidation of power under Uthman dan Fodio and his successors. The Sokoto Caliphate exerted control over various Hausa states, either through direct rule or indirect influence. This centralization of power brought stability and unity to the region, but it also led to tensions and conflicts with neighboring states and colonial powers.
The rise of the Sokoto Caliphate and the influence of Islamic teachings brought about cultural changes in Hausaland. Traditional beliefs and practices were gradually replaced or modified to align with Islamic principles. Arabic, the language of the Quran, gained prominence as a written and intellectual language, leading to a decline in the use of indigenous languages for formal education and administration.
While Uthman dan Fodio’s jihad was successful in establishing the Sokoto Caliphate, it also faced resistance and opposition from various groups within Hausaland. Some Hausa rulers and local communities resisted the centralization of power and the imposition of Islamic authority. These conflicts led to periodic uprisings and challenges to the caliphate’s rule.
Uthman dan Fodio’s jihad emphasized the importance of education and scholarship. Islamic schools (madrasas) were established, promoting Arabic literacy, Quranic studies, Islamic jurisprudence, and other scholarly disciplines. The consequences of Uthman dan Fodio’s jihad in the 19th century were multifaceted, resulting in significant political, social, religious, and cultural changes in Hausaland.
ANSWER FOUR QUESTIONS IN ALL. QUESTION 1 IS COMPULSORY.